Chief executive officer and board shake-ups

It’s just another tumultuous week in the tech sector.

Only a few days after being unceremoniously removed from his job as CEO of OpenAI, Sam Altman is triumphantly returning to the role in an unexpected turn of events. OpenAI officially announced Altman’s return, and former Salesforce, Inc. co-CEO Bret Taylor will now serve as the first board’s chair. Former US Treasury Secretary Larry Summers and current Quora, Inc. co-founder and CEO Adam D’Angelo are among the other directors. According to a post on X, the corporation is now working on completing the specifics of this sudden reorganization in the board.


In the same universe, Changpeng Zhao, the creator of Binance, the biggest cryptocurrency exchange in the world, had entered a guilty plea to charges of money laundering. This is a shocking setback for the most powerful and prominent person in the global cryptocurrency business.

The corporate world is no stranger to seismic shifts in leadership, with CEO and board shake-ups serving as pivotal moments that redefine the trajectory of organizations.

CEO shake-ups can stem from various factors, ranging from internal challenges to external pressures. The departure of Steve Jobs from Apple in 2011 was a poignant example, driven by health issues that emphasized the significance of personal well-being in executive leadership. Tim Cook’s succession showcased the resilience of a well-established company when guided by a capable successor. Apple not only sustained its momentum but continued to innovate and thrive under Cook’s leadership.

In 2017, General Electric underwent a significant leadership change with the departure of Jeffrey Immelt, concurrent with a restructuring of the board. The reasons behind this shake-up were rooted in the need for strategic realignment. Despite John Flannery’s efforts to refocus on core businesses, the challenges faced by General Electric underscored the complexities of executing substantial strategic shifts. The impacts of this transition were felt by the company, its employees, and shareholders who witnessed a decline in performance and value.

Uber faced a tumultuous period in 2017 that led to a CEO shake-up. Travis Kalanick’s departure and the appointment of Dara Khosrowshahi reflected a response to internal cultural issues and external controversies. Khosrowshahi’s emphasis on transparency and accountability marked a cultural shift aimed at addressing internal challenges and rebuilding trust. This transformation had far-reaching effects, impacting not only employees but also external stakeholders, including customers and investors closely monitoring Uber’s evolution.

Elon Musk’s tenure at Tesla in 2018 demonstrated how CEO behavior could trigger significant disruptions. Musk’s controversial tweets and SEC scrutiny led to a shake-up as he agreed to step down as chairman, revealing the legal and reputational risks associated with leadership conduct.


In 2014 in the Philippines, Philippine Airlines (PAL) underwent a significant shake-up. Ramon Ang, president of San Miguel Corp., acquired a substantial stake in PAL and assumed the position of president and COO, leading to changes in the airline’s leadership structure.

ABS-CBN, one of the largest media and entertainment companies in the Philippines, faced a major shake-up in 2020. The non-renewal of the network’s franchise led to leadership changes, and Carlo Katigbak stayed as president and CEO, navigating the company through challenging times.

Board shake-ups often coincide with or precede CEO transitions, indicating a broader need for strategic reassessment and governance restructuring. The confluence of changes at General Electric in 2017 exemplifies this integrated approach. The departure of Jeffrey Immelt and the restructuring of the board aimed to bring diverse skills and perspectives, contributing to effective oversight and strategic decision-making.


The effects of CEO and board shake-ups are intertwined, influencing organizations from both leadership and governance perspectives. Changes in the board composition can alter governance dynamics, influencing decision-making processes and strategic oversight. The impacts extend beyond the CEO position, affecting the company’s strategic direction and overall governance framework.

The experience of General Electric under John Flannery and the restructured board highlighted the challenges of revitalizing a large and diversified corporation. The repercussions were felt not only by the company but also by employees and shareholders, emphasizing the interconnectedness of leadership and governance. Similarly, the cultural shift at Uber under Dara Khosrowshahi impacted external stakeholders, illustrating the broader societal implications of leadership changes.


CEO and board shake-ups underscore the need for integrated leadership and governance planning. Organizations should consider both executive and governance changes in tandem, ensuring alignment between strategic direction and oversight mechanisms.

Board shake-ups highlight the importance of diversity and expertise in governance. A diverse board with a mix of skills and experiences can provide effective oversight and contribute to strategic decision-making, as seen in the restructured boards of companies like General Electric.


In addition, CEO transitions necessitate robust succession planning, ensuring a smooth handover of leadership. Companies should also consider the implications for the board, maintaining continuity in governance to foster stability and consistency.

Both CEO and board shake-ups demand effective communication with stakeholders. Transparent communication about the reasons for changes, the strategic vision, and the organization’s commitment to stability can build trust among employees, shareholders, and the broader community.

CEO and board shake-ups represent pivotal moments in an organization’s evolution, demanding a holistic approach to leadership and governance. By understanding the reasons behind these transitions, acknowledging their impact on companies and stakeholders, and learning from the lessons they offer, organizations can navigate change with resilience, adaptability, and a commitment to sustained success.

Reynaldo C. Lugtu, Jr. is the founder and CEO of Hungry Workhorse Consulting, a digital, culture, and customer experience transformation consulting firm. He is a fellow at the US-based Institute for Digital Transformation. He teaches strategic management and digital transformation in the MBA Program of De La Salle University. E-mail at